With greater than 75,000 tenants utilizing residence rental startup NestAway, disputes arising out of their refusal to pay rents or payments is just not unusual.

Due to the small sums concerned, the disputes are normally resolved out of court docket via arbitration, primarily based on a clause current within the rental contracts. However with arbitration nonetheless a cumbersome and dear course of mandating each events to be current for hearings and involving the submission of many paperwork, NestAway started how tech can be utilized to hurry up decision and likewise cut back the associated fee.


Beginning with making an attempt to resolve disputes by way of electronic mail, it went on to incubate an internet dispute decision (ODR) platform — Cadre or Centre for Alternate Dispute Decision Excellence. On Cadre, based by Shalini Saxena and Kanchan Gupta, the decision is completed on-line via a website-based platform.

graph1 The way forward for dispute settlements is right here First, one get together approaches the platform, which contacts the opposite get together. If each events conform to the arbitration guidelines, an arbiter is appointed and time-stamped intimations are despatched on emails and WhatsApp and SMS. The events don’t meet nose to nose however talk electronically, together with by way of video calls. The choice, which is legally binding, sometimes is available in 20-25 days.


At Cadre, the arbitrator’s charge is levied on each events, however is normally paid by the get together that introduced up the dispute. “Authorized prices for resolving such disputes have halved. Additionally, a case that may take six months by way of arbitration is being settled in 30 days,” says Rajneesh Jaswal, common counsel at NestAway.

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Although these are early days for ODR with about 30 circumstances resolved by way of Cadre to this point, Jaswal is hopeful the numbers will rise. Cadre is just not the one platform in India to foray into ODR. Sama, a startup by Pranjal Sinha, Akshetha Ashok and Vikram Kumar, is operating a pilot for ICICI Financial institution. It’s serving to resolve practically 10,000 disputes with values of as much as Rs 20 lakh after successful an E-Alternate Dispute Decision Problem 2019 launched by the financial institution and Agami, a non-profit. Sama fees a fee for the companies supplied on its platform.

graph3 The way forward for dispute settlements is right here
Final 12 months, Vikas Mahendra, a companion with legislation agency Keystone Companions, cofounded the Centre for On-line Dispute Decision (CODR), which positions itself as an establishment that can administer circumstances on-line end-to-end. It’s presently specializing in arbitration coaching to construct a expertise pool and is seeking to begin resolving disputes by January finish.

graph2 The way forward for dispute settlements is right here These are the early indicators of the adoption of another dispute decision mechanism being extensively utilized in China and the US, notably in circumstances associated to on-line transactions.

In India, the place courts are overburdened and the backlog of circumstances runs into lakhs, the argument for on-line dispute decision is robust. “Entry to justice in India is abysmal and resolving disputes is evidently a ache level, contemplating the time, cash and energy concerned,” says Pranjal Sinha of Sama.

Whereas arbitration was supposed as a substitute for going to court docket for sure sorts of disputes, that mechanism itself has turn out to be cumbersome and sometimes costly.

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ODR affords a extra accessible, clear and sooner possibility, notably for corporations coping with excessive quantity and low worth transactions accomplished on-line. With extra Indians transacting on-line — whether or not for e-commerce or banking — stakeholders say the timing is true for ODR to realize acceptance as a simple mechanism to resolve grievances. A 12 months in the past, a Nandan Nilekani -led panel on digital funds recommended that every one fee system operators “should implement a quick and truthful on-line dispute decision system”.

Globally, ODR development was fuelled by the e-commerce increase, with eBay and PayPal resolving hundreds of thousands of disputes on-line. “ODR can be utilized throughout sectors — from insurance coverage to banking – and likewise for household disputes. It’s about leveraging tech to forestall and resolve disputes,” says Chittu Nagarajan, a pioneer in ODR who headed Neighborhood Courtroom initiatives at eBay and PayPal.

After the acquisition of her final ODR agency Modria by Tyler Applied sciences, Nagarajan in 2019 launched CREK ODR, an industry- and dispute-agnostic platform, which may be accessed by purchasers wherever on the planet. She underlines the necessity for a robust know-how layer whereas implementing ODR. Her startup is an end-to-end SaaS platform with a number of options like digital mediation rooms. “ODR is not only about purposes. You want a implausible tech platform. The design can’t be the identical for platforms resolving household and e-commerce disputes.”

Gamers are conscious of the challenges within the adoption of ODR in India — from the shortage of sufficient arbitrators to constructing belief amongst customers. “Folks want to simply accept that disputes may be resolved with out the events seeing one another,” says Jaswal. “The larger check will likely be coping with people who find themselves not used to the digital ecosystem.”

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Sama’s Sinha says capability constructing can be a priority. “Attorneys can now discover offering on-line arbitration and mediation companies as a viable profession possibility too.”

Nonetheless, there may be rising conviction that it is just a matter of time earlier than ODR is adopted at scale in India. CODR’s Mahendra factors to 2 latest judgements. Within the first case, the Bombay Excessive Courtroom pulled up Tata Capital Monetary Companies when it was discovered to have used the identical arbitrator for over 2,200 circumstances, paying him Rs 1,000 per case, which highlights the necessity for a lot of arbitrators at acceptable value factors.

Within the second, the Supreme Courtroom dominated that even in contracts with unilateral arbitrator appointment clauses, an individual with an curiosity in a dispute should not be eligible to nominate an arbitrator. This ruling impacts hundreds of thousands of contracts which have already been signed and forces organisations to search for unbiased appointing authorities for his or her contracts. “ODR and technological help are the one reasonably priced options to this want for large-scale arbitration,” says Mahendra.